Water resources are known to be of greater vitality for the smooth functionality of the civilization we call “Earth”. The need to secure safe water for use is getting significant with every passing day with an increased amount of pollution in and out of water. The utility of the water filtration system isn’t just for commercial but also for industrial functionality. Owing to its wide reach, it facilitates the dynamic designs and variety of water filtration systems provided by numerous filtration industrialists and proves to be vital in the millennial age of advancement. The water filtration system on a larger scope can be divided under two categories: ‘manual water filtration system’ and ‘chemical water filtration system’. With boons and banes, both systems are highly significant to the advancement and security of the water we use.
Water filtration system working
Water is a basic source of survival for all the living beings, with the high level of toxicities running through the water bodies (the original source of all water reservoirs and commercial institutions), have practically ruined the firm base of a strong flow of clean and safe water for functionality. Therefore, the need to filter the very source and to facilitate industries and the society with clean and safe water for usage is a necessity which we cannot ignore. The water filtration system works with two varied structures possible; one is the physical filtration which refers to straining of the water flow to remove larger impurities. A physical filter is added to the process which cleans the water of any large size impurities if present. This won’t be proved as a successful process for filtration if the impure particles are small and fine in nature. To purify the water of all the impurities at once without any disruption is when the chemically restores filtration system is glorified. With the presence of an active material which works as a magnet for the impurities, is through which the water is passed, and the end result is the clean water for processing.
Water filter: Prime types
Different water filtration types require different solutions and hence they are made in four varied designs of water filtration systems to facilitate every specific need that exists.
- Activated carbon
Activated Carbon (based on charcoal) is the penetrable form of carbon deduced while burning of wood in a reduced supply of oxygen. Charcoal has an enormous internal surface area, packed with openings that could easily trap chemical impurities. This process is called adsorption, where liquids or gases are trapped by solids or liquids. Charcoal when comes to removing impurities like chlorine-based chemicals, pesticides, and industrial solvents are best but is not that effective when it comes to the heavy metals such as sodium, nitrates, fluorine or microbes. Another drawback for the activated carbon water filtration system is that the filters eventually clog up with impurities and must be replaced, which implies a continued form of the cost involved until disposal of the machine.
- Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis refers to forcing of contaminated water through a membrane with a fine filter at a designated pressure, so the water through it passes on but the contaminants remain behind. This process is based on the biological concept called ‘Osmosis’ which refers to when one concentrated solution is separated from another concentrated solution in such a way some particulates pass through and some remain behind. A concentrated solution by a semi-permeable membrane and the solutions try to rearrange themselves so they’re both at the same concentration. Unlike osmosis, reverse osmosis forces water in the opposite direction of its natural inclination (as to this process makes a more-concentrated solution into one less concentrated solution) hence the process is undertaken under pressure. Reverse osmosis uses electrically powered pumps to run. It is also effective while removing contaminants like salt, nitrates or limescale but is less effective at removing others like bacteria. Through reverse osmosis, the water is purified but also produces large amounts of polluted water which is filtered in the process and comes down to the ratio of 1:4, 1 being the fraction for clean water and 4 being polluted water.
- Ion exchange
Ion exchange filters workings include replacement of ions from the concentrate called water. The process is also known to be as “softening” of water. They split atoms of a contaminating substance to make ions with too many or few electrons that are trapped by mechanical engineering. Thereafter ions of their own makings are released in the concentrated solution of water. Ion exchange water filtration systems are made of zeolite beads which consist of sodium ions. Hard water contains magnesium and calcium compounds and when this is poured into ion exchange filter, the compounds of magnesium and calcium are split into ions. The filter beads attract more of magnesium and calcium ions and hence replace them with sodium ions in the water. Once removed from the magnesium and calcium ions, the water becomes soft and pleasant. The loophole in this filtration process is that sodium ions are still contaminants in the water and hence the end product cannot be considered as 100% pure. The ion exchange filters are required to be changed periodically by sodium ions mostly by adding salt to the process. The salt recharges and helps to prevent a gradual build-up of limescale that can damage the machine.
Distillation process includes boiling of water which is a commonly known practice to remove impurities from water but the distillation process of water filtration includes capturing the steam from the process ad condensing it back to the water. The steam deduced by the water itself is stored and condensed to normal temperature (water) removing the heavy metals with higher boiling rates end up in the contaminated water. Although the volatile organic compounds and some other contaminants which have lower boiling points than of water it remains after the process as they evaporate with the steam.
Water filtration is required to be introduced as a more significant subject hence is a field which needs our focus and work.